Increasing incidence of cachexia following stroke
Loss of muscle and body weight (or cachexia) is associated with disability after stroke, in the first study to prospectively investigate the development of cachexia in patients after acute stroke. The study showed that the amount of skeletal muscle throughout the body declines after stroke, which could require treatment options such as dietary supplementation and exercise training to prevent muscle wasting.
Study author Dr Nadja Scherbakov, of the Centre for Stroke Research Berlin and Charité University Hospital, Berlin, Germany, said: “Cachexia is observed in cancer and chronic diseases like heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and kidney disease, but has not previously been studied following stroke.”
The study examined changes in body weight and composition during the year after an ischaemic stroke and their association with disability. The researchers found that 21% of patients had developed cachexia one year later, meaning they had lost at least 5% of their body weight. This included the loss of 19% of their body fat and 6.5% of their muscle mass. Notably, this body wasting occurred equally in patients with and without limb paresis. Patients with cachexia had significantly lower functional capacity and significantly lower handgrip strength than those without cachexia.
In addition, patients with cachexia had significantly higher levels of inflammation in the body, as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood, than those without cachexia. Patients with systemic inflammation had a fivefold greater risk of muscle wasting, 11% higher risk of weight loss, 30% greater chance of reduced appetite, and 6% higher likelihood of low handgrip strength. This suggests that systemic inflammation may contribute to tissue wasting and the development of cachexia.
Dr Scherbakov said: “The disability caused by stroke is usually attributed to brain damage, with little attention paid to the effector organ, which is the skeletal muscle. Exercise training is the most promising way to delay or prevent progression of muscle wasting and may be a therapy option. Treatment of cachexia includes dietary supplementation with protein, vitamins and minerals, and might also prevent muscle wasting after stroke.”
Health care professionals in primary care need to be aware of the risks of patients developing cachexia following a stroke in order to initiate appropriate treatment. The study showed that older patients with moderately severe stroke were particularly prone to developing cachexia after stroke, so it is important to monitor their body weight, appetite and nutritional status.
Scherbakov N, Pietrock C, Sandek A et al. Body weight changes and cachexia after stroke. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 2019. doi10.1002/jcsm.12400. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcsm.12400
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